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Aprenda a detectar signos de alerta en la autoexploración mamaria

Aprenda a detectar signos de alerta en la autoexploración mamaria

A través de los módulos PrevenIMSS el personal de salud realiza acciones de orientación y detección oportuna de padecimientos mamarios Cuando se detecta oportunamente –en fase temprana- el cáncer de mama es una enfermedad con altas probabilidades de curación, con una sobrevida casi normal para la paciente, informa el doctor Guillermo Espinosa Fuentes, coordinador de Enseñanza e Investigación de la Unidad de Medicina Familiar (UMF) No. 222 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) Estado de México Poniente.

El médico del IMSS explica que la etapa de detección es el factor más importante para determinar el tratamiento y pronóstico del cáncer de mama, por ello la importancia de difundir entre las mujeres la autoexploración mamaria, la visita por lo menos dos veces al año a los módulos de PrevenIMSS y la consulta con su médico familiar en caso de detectar anormalidades.

El doctor Espinosa Fuentes señala que las mujeres a partir de los 15 años pueden a través de tres sencillos pasos realizar la autoexploración mamaria, aún cuando tienen implantes, están embarazadas o dando de lactar, simplemente deberá dedicar unos minutos para reconocer sus senos.

Paso1.- De pie, frente a un espejo con los hombros rectos y los brazos a los costados, observar los senos y detectar si existen diferencias en tamaño, forma y color, inflamación, deformación, arrugas, hoyuelos o bultos, que el pezón se encuentra invertido (hacia adentro) o sale algún líquido por él. Este procedimiento se debe repetir con los brazos extendidos hacia arriba, cruzados por detrás de la nuca y ligeramente flexionados los codos hacia el frente.

Paso 2.- Colocar una mano por detrás de la nuca y con la otra explorar toda la mama del lado contrario, utilizando las yemas de los dedos, haciendo movimientos en espiral, desde el pezón hasta el exterior, de arriba hacia abajo y de lado a lado hasta llegar a la axila. El objetivo es reconocer la textura de la piel, la forma y los tejidos internos, identificando si existe algún bulto, zona de dolor o de consistencia diferente al resto de la mama.

Paso 3.- Recostarse y repetir la palpación, buscando cambios y anormalidades, efectuando presión moderada para sentir el tejido de la parte media y profunda de la mama. Algunas mujeres prefieren hacer la exploración durante el baño, aunque es indistinto. Lo recomendable es realizarla al menos una vez al mes, de preferencia una semana después de haber concluido el periodo menstrual ya que las mamas no se encuentran sensibles ni inflamadas.

El médico del IMSS Poniente señala que si bien no todos los abultamientos o anormalidades implican la presencia de cáncer, lo mejor es que al detectar algún signo de los antes mencionados, se acuda a su Unidad de Medicina Familiar, para que el médico con base en los antecedentes familiares, los estudios de laboratorio y de imagenología determine el tratamiento pertinente.

A través de los módulos PrevenIMSS, ubicados en las Unidades de Medicina Familiar, el personal de salud realiza acciones de orientación y detección oportuna de padecimientos mamarios para sus derechohabientes.

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